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Intellectual Property Tag

BananaIP Counsels > Posts tagged "Intellectual Property" (Page 25)

Non-obviousness of Biotech Inventions in USA

First Publication Date: 26th December 2010. The Non-obviousness standards required for biotechnology inventions have been interpreted by courts to be different from the generally accepted principles. In Hybritech v. Monoclonal , a case involving a patent over "Immunometric Assays Using Monoclonal Antibodies", the court held the patent non-obvious despite the existence of twenty prior art references because the prior art as a whole did not make the invention obvious at the time the invention was made. Though some references seemed to anticipate the invention, the Court pointed out that they were made after the date of conception of the invention, thus...

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Patentability of Biotech Inventions in USA – Patentable Subject Matter

The image depicts a person in a laboratory.

First Publication Date: 27th December 2010 To be patentable subject matter in USA, an invention should be a process, machine, manufacture or composition of matter or any improvement thereof. There are three judicially created exclusions to patentable subject matter in USA. They are Laws of nature, physical phenomena, and abstract ideas. Biotechnology (Biotech) inventions are considered to be eligible subjects as Compositions of matter or manufactures. The exclusion most relevant for biotech inventions is 'Laws of nature' exclusion. US Courts have consistently held that as per the exclusion anything that naturally exists or is a 'product of nature' is not patentable. The...

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Once an Intermediate, Always an Intermediate

  First Publication Date: 22nd December 2010   The other day, while I was having a heated discussion with 2 fellow bloggers about the patentability of repurposed drugs i.e. patenting of new use of a known drug, we hit a road block with regard to patent value of an intermediate. The question raised was "Will a newly found first use of an already known intermediate be patentable in India?" I am rephrasing the question for the purpose of this discussion.  “Will the exclusion criterion elaborated in Section 3 (d) of the Indian Patents Act exclude the patentability of the first known use of the intermediate?” Whenever...

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Biotechnology and Patent Challenge

This image depicts a DNA strand. The DNA forms the basis of all life forma and conquering it is the challenge for biotechnology. This post is about the patentability of biotech inventions. Click on the image to read the full post.

First Publication Date: 19th December 2010. Since inception patent law is being customized and fine tuned by governments to meet the needs of evolving technologies. Strong basic principles have evolved to cater to the needs of traditional fields of science and technology and they have been working well in promoting progress. However, the basic principles have utterly failed in a number of ways, when it comes to their application to Modern Biotechnology. The unique nature of Modern Biotechnology is the main reason for the failure.Why is Biotechnology Unique? Biotechnology promises more efficacious drugs, medical treatment tailored to the individual patient's biological make-up,...

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Decorated Christmas Trees

First Publication Date: 21st December 2010. It is a busy world and a busy life. People are in a hurry to earn their living and achieve some thing in life. During the rush to fulfill their dreams, they hardly find time to catch up with their loved ones and even forget to enjoy life. That is the point where festivals play a significant role. Nowadays festivals are the only occasions during which people reunite with their dear ones and find some time to enjoy regardless of their hectic schedules. One of such a festival - Christmas has come. Christmas is a joyous...

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Validity of Non-Compete Covenants in India

This image depicts a gate locked with a chain. This image is relevant because this post talks about the validity of Employee's Non-Compete Covenants in India

First Publication Date: 15th December 2010 Agreements that restrain an employee from working with a competitor or carrying out a competing business are called Non-compete agreements. Such agreements, when reasonable are considered to be valid in countries such as USA and UK. However, under the Indian law Non-compete agreements are valid to a very limited extent because agreements in restraint of trade or employment are void under Section 27 of the Indian Contract Act. The section reads as follows:"27. Agreement in restraint of trade void .– Every agreement by which any one is restrained from exercising a lawful profession, trade or...

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Integrating Secrecy and Exclusivity to Gain Competitive Advantage

First Publication Date: 10th December 2010. Patents protect inventions by granting exclusive rights for a period of twenty years and trade secrets protect any information having business value as long as the information can be maintained secret. Unlike patents, trade secrets need not be registered and will remain valid based on measures taken by the trade secret holder. The subject matter of trade secrets is very broad and a very small portion of that subject matter relating to inventions overlaps with that of patents. What protection should a company opt for with respect to the overlapping subject matter? As propounded by the...

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Negotiating License Agreements

  First Publication Date: 9th December 2010   This is in furtherance of my post on drafting patent licenses. The final deal in a license transaction depends on how well a person can negotiate and not on what is fair. "You get what you bargain for and not necessarily what is fair." Therefore, preparation for a license negotiation and negotiation skills play an important role in the final outcome. The first step towards preparing for a license negotiation is patent strength evaluation. A Licensor or Licensee must be well aware of the strength of his patent or portfolio in the light of other patents....

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A Conduit for INVALID PATENTS – Section 13(1)(b)

First Publication Date: 8th December 2010.   Section 13 of the Indian Patent Act requires the Examiner, to whom an application for a patent is referred to, to search for previous publications which anticipate the invention claimed in the referred patent application. Section 13 recites “Search for anticipation by previous publication and by prior claim (1) The examiner to whom an application for a patent is referred under section 12 shall make investigation for the purpose of ascertaining whether the invention so far as claimed in any claim of the complete specification- (a) has been anticipated by publication before the date of filing of the applicant’s...

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Drafting Valid Patent Licenses

First Publication Date: 8th December 2010 The clauses in a license agreement vary based on the nature of the patented invention. Each technology has certain unique characteristics and applications, which influence license drafting. Some of the basic clauses that go into every license agreement are as follows:This post is in furtherance of the post "Sensing Licensing Opportunities". A license is an authorization given by the patent holder to exercise the exclusive rights granted by the patent. It permits the person acquiring the license to practise the patented invention in the manner allowed under the license. Therefore, a license agreement must clearly...

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