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[As amended by the Tribunals Reforms (Rationalisation and Conditions of Service) Ordinance, 2021]


Any country, which is a signatory or party or a group of countries, union of countries or intergovernmental organisations which are signatories or parties to an international, regional or bi-lateral treaty, convention or arrangement to which India is also a signatory or party and which affords to the applicants for patents in India or to citizens of India similar privileges as are granted to their own citizens or citizens to their member countries in respect of the grant of patents and protection of patent rights shall be a convention country or convention countries for the purposes of this Act.


Where any country specified by the Central Government in this behalf by notification in the Official Gazette does not accord to citizens of India the same rights in respect of the grant of patents and the protection of patent rights as it accords to its own nationals, no national of such country shall be entitled, either solely or jointly with any other person,—

(a) to apply for the grant of a patent or be registered as the proprietor of a patent;

(b) to be registered as the assignee of the proprietor of a patent; or

(c) to apply for a licence or hold any licence under a patent granted under this Act.


(1) Without prejudice to the provisions contained in section 6, where a person has made an application for a patent in respect of an invention in a convention country (hereinafter referred to as the “basic application”), and that person or the legal representative or assignee of that person makes an application under this Act for a patent within twelve months after the date on which the basic application was made, the priority date of a claim of the complete specification, being a claim based on matter disclosed in the basic application, is the date of making of the basic application.

Explanation.—Where applications have been made for similar protection in respect of an invention in two or more convention countries, the period of twelve months referred to in this sub-section shall be reckoned from the date on which the earlier or earliest of the said applications was made.

(2) Where applications for protection have been made in one or more convention countries in respect of two or more inventions which are cognate or of which one is a modification of another, a single convention application may, subject to the provisions contained in section 10, be made in respect of those inventions at any time within twelve months from the date of the earliest of the said applications for protection:

Provided that the fee payable on the making of any such application shall be the same as if separate applications have been made in respect of each of the said inventions, and the requirements of clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 136 shall, in the case of any such application, apply separately to the applications for protection in respect of each of the said inventions.

(3) In case of an application filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty designating India and claiming priority from a previously filed application in India, the provisions of sub-sections (1)and (2) shall apply as if the previously filed application were the basic application: Provided that a request for examination under section 11B shall be made only for one of the applications filed in India.


(1) Every convention application shall—

(a) be accompanied by a complete specification; and

(b) specify the date on which and the convention country in which the application for protection, or as the case may be, the first of such applications was made; and

(c) state that no application for protection in respect of the invention had been made in a convention country before that date by the applicant or by any person from whom he derives title.

(2) Subject to the provisions contained in section 10, a complete specification filed with a convention application may include claims in respect of developments of, or additions to, the invention in respect of which the application for protection was made in a convention country, being developments or additions in respect of which the applicant would be entitled under the provisions of section 6 to make a separate application for a patent.

(3) A convention application shall not be post-dated under sub-section (1) of section 17 to a date later than the date on which under the provisions of this Act the application could have been made.