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Chapter 4 – Effect of Registration

BananaIP Counsels > The Trade Marks Act > Chapter 4 – Effect of Registration

Chapter 4 – Effect of Registration

 

No Action for Infringement of Unregistered Trade Mark

 

27.—(1) No person shall be entitled to institute any proceeding to prevent, or to recover
damages for, the infringement of an unregistered trade mark.

 

(2) Nothing in this Act shall be deemed to affect rights of action against any person for
passing off goods or services as the goods of another person or as services provided by
another person or the remedies in respect thereof.

 

Rights Conferred by Registration

 

28.—(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, the registration of a trade mark
shall, if valid, give to the registered proprietor of the trade mark the exclusive right to the use
of the trade mark in relation to the goods or services in respect of which the trade mark is
registered and to obtain relief in respect of infringement of the trade mark in the manner
provided by this Act.

 

(2) The exclusive right to the use of a trade mark given under sub-section (1) shall be
subject to any conditions and limitations to which the registration is subject.

 

(3) Where two or more persons are registered proprietors of trade marks, which are
identical with or nearly resemble each other, the exclusive right to the use of any of those
trade marks shall not (except so far as their respective rights are subject to any conditions or
limitations entered on the register) be deemed to have been acquired by any one of those
persons as against any other of those persons merely by registration of the trade marks but
each of those persons has otherwise the same rights as against other persons (not being
registered users using by way of permitted use) as he would have if he were the sole
registered proprietor.

 

Infringement of Registered Trade Marks

 

29.—(1) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person who, not being a registered
proprietor or a person using by way of permitted use, uses in the course of trade, a mark
which is identical with, or deceptively similar to, the trade mark in relation to goods or
services in respect of which the trade mark is registered and in such manner as to render the
use of the mark likely to be taken as being used as a trade mark.

 

(2) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person who, not being a registered
proprietor or a person using by way of permitted use, uses in the course of trade, a mark
which because of—

(a) its identity with the registered trade mark and the similarity of the goods or services
covered by such registered trade mark; or

(b) its similarity to the registered trade mark and the identity or similarity of the goods
or services covered by such registered trade mark; or

(c) its identity with the registered trade mark and the identity of the goods of services
covered by such registered trade mark,
is likely to cause confusion on the part of the public, or which is likely to have an association
with the registered trade mark.

 

(3) In any case falling under clause (c) of sub-section (2), the court shall presume that it
is likely to cause confusion on the part of the public.

 

(4) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person who, not being a registered
proprietor or a person using by way of permitted use, uses in the course of trade, a mark
which—

(a) is identical with or similar to the registered trade mark; and

(b) is used in relation to goods or services which are not similar to those for which the
trade mark is registered; and

(c) the registered trade mark has a reputation in India and the use of the mark without
due cause takes unfair advantage of or is detrimental to, the distinctive character or repute of
the registered trade mark.

 

(5) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person if he uses such registered trade
mark, as his trade name or part of his trade name, or name of his business concern or part of
the name, of his business concern dealing in goods or services in respect of which the trade
mark registered.

 

(6) For the purposes of this section, a person uses a registered mark, if, in particular,
he—

(a) affixes it to goods or the packaging thereof;

(b) offers or exposes goods for sale, puts them on the market, or stocks them for those
purposes under the registered trade mark, or offers or supplies services under the registered
trade mark;

(c) imports or exports goods under the mark; or

(d) uses the registered trade mark on business papers or in advertising.

 

(7) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person who applies such registered trade
mark to a material intended to be used for labelling or packaging goods, as a business paper,
or for advertising goods or services, provided such person, when he applied the mark, knew or
had reason to believe that the application of the mark was not duly authorised by the
proprietor or a licensee.

 

(8) A registered trade mark is infringed by any advertising of that trade mark if such
advertising—

(a) Takes unfair advantage of and is contrary to honest practices in industrial or
commercial matters; or

(b) is detrimental to its distinctive character; or

(c) is against the reputation of the trade mark.

 

(9) Where the distinctive elements of a registered trade mark consist of or include
words, the trade mark may be infringed by the spoken use of those words as well as by their
visual representation and reference in this section to the use of a mark shall be construed
accordingly.

 

Limits on Effect of Registered Trade Mark

 

30.—(1) Nothing in section 29 shall be construed as preventing the use of a registered
trade mark by any person for the purposes of identifying goods or services as those of the
proprietor provided the use—

(a) is in accordance with honest practices in industrial or commercial matters, and

(b) is not such as to take unfair advantage of or be detrimental to the distinctive
character or repute of the trade mark.

 

(2) A registered trade mark is not infringed where—

(a) the use in relation to goods or services indicates the kind, quality, quantity, intended
purpose, value, geographical origin, the time of production of goods or of rendering of
services or other characteristics of goods or services;

(b) a trade mark is registered subject to any conditions or limitations, the use of the
trade mark in any manner in relation to goods to be sold or otherwise traded in, in any place,
or in relation to goods to be exported to any market or in relation to services for use or
available or acceptance in any place or country outside India or in any other circumstances, to
which, having regard to those conditions or limitations, the registration does not extend;

(c) the use by a person of a trade mark—

(i) in relation to goods connected in the course of trade with the proprietor or a
registered user of the trade mark if, as to those goods or a bulk or which they form part, the
registered proprietor or the registered user conforming to the permitted use has applied the trade mark and has not subsequently removed or obliterated it, or has at any time expressly or
impliedly consented to the use of the trade mark; or

(ii) in relation to services to which the proprietor of such mark or of a registered user
conforming to the permitted use has applied the mark, where the purpose and effect of the use
of the mark is to indicate, in accordance with the fact, that those services have been performed
by the proprietor or a registered user of the mark;

(d) the use of a trade mark by a person in relation to goods adapted to form part of, or
to be accessory to, other goods or services in relation to which the trade mark has been used
without infringement of the right given by registration under this Act or might for the time
being be so used, if the use of the trade mark is reasonably necessary in order to indicate that
the goods or services are so adapted, and neither the purpose nor the effect of the use of the
trade mark is to indicate, otherwise than in accordance with the fact, a connection in the
course of trade between any person and the goods or services, as the case may be;

(e) the use of a registered trade mark, being one of two or more trade marks registered
under this Act which are identical or nearly resemble each other, in exercise of the right to the
use of that trade mark given by registration under this Act.

 

(3) Where the goods bearing a registered trade mark are lawfully acquired by a person,
the sale of the goods in the market or otherwise dealing in those goods by that person or by a
person claiming under or through him is not infringement of a trade by reason only of—

(a) the registered trade mark having been assigned by the registered proprietor to some
other person, after the acquisition of those goods; or

(b) the goods having been put on the market under the registered trade mark by the
proprietor or with his consent.

 

(4) Sub-section (3) shall not apply where there exists legitimate reasons for the
proprietor to oppose further dealings in the goods in particular, where the condition of the
goods, has been changed or impaired after they have been put on the market.

 

Registration to Be Prima Facie Evidence of Validity

 

31.—(1) In all legal proceedings relating to a trade mark registered under this Act
(including applications under section 57), the original registration of the trade mark and of all
subsequent assignments and transmissions of the trade mark shall be prima facie evidence of
the validity thereof;

 

(2) In all legal proceedings as aforesaid a registered trade mark shall not be held to be
invalid on the ground that it was not a registrable trade mark under section 9 except upon
evidence of distinctiveness and that such evidence was not submitted to the Registrar before
registration, if it is proved that the trade mark had been so used by the registered proprietor or
his predecessor in title as to have become distinctive at the date of registration.

 

Protection of Registration on Ground of Distinctiveness in Certain Cases

 

32. Where a trade mark is registered in breach of sub-section (1) of section 9, it shall
not be declared invalid if, in consequence of the use which has been made of it, it has after
registration and before commencement of any legal proceedings challenging the validity of
such registration, acquired a distinctive character in relation to the goods or services for which
it is registered.

 

Effect of Acquiescence

 

33.—(1) Where the proprietor of an earlier trade mark has acquiesced for a continuous
period of five years in the use of a registered trade mark , being aware of that use, he shall no
longer be entitled on the basis of that earlier trade mark—

(a) to apply for a declaration that the registration of the later trade mark is invalid, or

(b) to oppose the use of the later trade mark in relation to the goods or services in
relation to which it has been so used,
unless the registration of the later trade mark was not applied in good faith.

 

(2) Where sub-section (1) applies, the proprietor of the later trade mark is not entitled
to oppose the use of the earlier trade mark, or as the case may be, the exploitation of the
earlier right, notwithstanding that the earlier trade mark may no longer be invoked against his
later trade mark.

 

Saving for Vested Rights

 

34. Nothing in this Act shall entitle the proprietor or a registered user of registered
trade mark to interfere with or restrain the use by any person of a trade mark identical with or
nearly resembling it in relation to goods or services in relation to which that person or a
predecessor in title of his has continuously used that trade mark from a date prior—

(a) to the use of the first mentioned trade mark in relation to those goods or services be
the proprietor or a predecessor in title of his; or

(b) to the date of registration of the first mentioned trade mark in respect of those goods
or services in the name of the proprietor or a predecessor in title of his;
whichever is the earlier, and the Registrar shall not refuse (on such use being proved) to
register the second mentioned trade mark by reason only of the registration of the first
mentioned trade mark.

 

Saving for Use of Name, Address or Description of Goods or Services

 

35. Nothing in this Act shall entitle the proprietor or a registered user of a registered
trade mark to interfere with any bona fide use by a person of his own name or that of his place

of business, or of the name, or of the name of the place of business, of any of his predecessors
in business, or the use by any person of any bona fide description of the character or quality of
his goods or services.

 

Saving for Words Used as Name or Description ofan Article or Substance or Service

 

36.—(1) The registration of a trade mark shall not be deemed to have become invalid
by reason only of any use after the date of the registration of any word or words which the
trade mark contains or of which it consists as the name or description of an article or
substance or service:
Provided that, if it is proved either—

(a) that there is a well known and established use of the said word as the name or
description of the article or substance or service by a person or persons carrying on trade
therein, not being use in relation to goods or services connected in the course of trade with the
proprietor or a registered user of the trade mark or (in the case of a certification trade mark) in
relation to goods or services certified by the proprietor; or

(b) that the article or substance was formerly manufactured under a patent that a period
of two years or more after the cesser of the patent has elapsed and that the said word is the
only practicable name or description of the article or substance.
the provisions of sub-section (2) shall apply.

 

(2) Where the facts mentioned in clause (a) or clause (b) of the proviso to
sub-section (1) are proved with respect to any words, then,—

(a) for the purposes of any proceedings under section 57 if the trade mark consists
solely of such words, the registration of the trade mark, so far as regards registration in
respect of the article or substance in question or of any goods of the same description, or of
the services or of any services of the same description, as the case requires, shall be deemed to
be an entry wrongly remaining on the register;

(b) for the purposes of any other legal proceedings relating to the trade mark,-

(i) if the trade mark consists solely of such words, all rights of the proprietor under this
Act or any other law to the use of the trade mark; or

(ii) if the trade mark contains such words and other matter, all such right of the
proprietor to the use of such words,
in relation to the article or substance or to any goods of the same description, or to the service
or to any services of the same description, as the case requires, shall be deemed to have
ceased on the date on which the use mentioned in clause (a) of the proviso to sub-section (1)
first became well known and established or at the expiration of the period of two years
mentioned in clause (b) of the said proviso.

 

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