CHAPTER IX: DUTIES OF THE CENTRAL AND THE STATE GOVERNMENTS
36. Central Government to develop National strategies plans, etc., for conservation, etc., of biological diversity.—
(1) The Central Government shall develop national strategies, plans, programmes for the conservation and promotion and sustainable use of biological diversity including measures for identification and monitoring of areas rich in biological resources, promotion of in situ, and ex situ,
conservation of biological resources, incentives for research, training and public education to increase awareness with respect to biodiversity.
(2) Where the Central Government has reason to believe that any area rich in biological diversity, biological resources and their habitats is being threatened by overuse, abuse or neglect, it shall issue directives to the concerned State Government to take immediate ameliorative measures, offering such State Government any technical and other assistance that is possible to be provided or needed.
(3) The Central Government shall, as far as practicable wherever it deems appropriate, integrate the conservation, promotion and sustainable use of biological diversity into relevant sectoral or cross-sectoral plans, programmes and policies.
(4) The Central Government shall undertake measures,—
(i) wherever necessary, for assessment of environmental impact of that project which is likely to have adverse effect on biological diversity, with a view to avoid or minimise such effects and where appropriate provide for public participation in such assessment;
(ii) to regulate, manage or control the risks associated with the use and release of living modified organisms resulting from biotechnology likely to have adverse impact on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and human health.
(5) The Central Government shall endeavour to respect and protect the knowledge of local people relating to biological diversity, as recommended by the National Biodiversity Authority through such measures, which may include registration of such knowledge at the local, State or national levels, and other measures for protection, including sui generis system.
Explanation.—For the purposes of this section,—
(a) “ex situ conservation” means the conservation of components of biological diversity outside their natural habitats;
(b) “in situ conservation” means the conservation of ecosystems and natural habitats and the maintenance and recovery of viable populations of species in their natural surroundings and, in the case of domesticated or cultivated species, in the surroundings where they have developed their
37. Biodiversity heritage sites.—
(1) Without prejudice to any other law for the time being in force, the State Government may, from time to time in consultation with the local bodies, notify in the Official Gazette, areas of biodiversity importance as biodiversity heritage sites under this Act.
(2) The State Government, in consultation with the Central Government, may frame rules for the management and conservation of all the heritage sites.
(3) The State Government shall frame schemes for compensating or rehabilitating any person or section of people economically affected by such notification.
38. Power of Central Government to notify threatened species.—
Without prejudice to the provisions of any other law for the time being in force, the Central Government, in consultation with the concerned State Government, may from time to time notify any species which is on the verge of extinction or likely to become extinct in the near future as a threatened species and prohibit or regulate collection thereof for any purpose and take appropriate steps to rehabilitate and preserve those species.
39. Power of Central Government to designate repositories.—
(1) The Central Government may, in consultation with the National Biodiversity Authority, designate institutions as repositories under this Act for different categories of biological resources.
(2) The repositories shall keep in safe custody the biological material including voucher specimens deposited with them.
(3) Any new tax on discovered by any person shall be notified to the repositories or any institution designated for this purpose and he shall deposit the voucher specimens with such repository or institution.
40. Power of Central Government to exempt certain biological resources.—
Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, the Central Government may, in consultation with the National Biodiversity Authority, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare that the provisions of this Act shall not apply to any items, including biological resources normally traded as commodities.